After nearly 30 years of development, belt grinding has now become a relatively complete and self-contained new processing technology. Relying on the characteristics of high processing efficiency, wide application range, strong adaptability, low use cost, safe and convenient operation, etc., belt grinding is favored by users.
At present, the grinding technology of the abrasive belt has made great progress. Its processing objects and application fields are becoming more and more extensive, and it can process almost all engineering materials, from general daily appliances to large-scale aerospace appliances. Moreover, abrasive belt grinding technology has become an important means to obtain significant economic benefits. As a processing technology, the reason why it has received increasing attention and rapid development is that it has the following characteristics.
1. Grinding performance of the abrasive belt
Abrasive belt grinding is a kind of elastic grinding, which is a compound processing technology with multiple functions of grinding, grinding, and polishing.
2. Abrasive grains of abrasive belt
The abrasive grains on the abrasive belt have a stronger cutting ability than the grinding wheel abrasive grains, so the grinding efficiency is very high. The high efficiency of abrasive belt grinding is reflected in its high removal rate, grinding ratio (the ratio of the weight of the removed workpiece to the abrasive wear weight), and the high utilization rate of the machine tool power.
At present, the removal rate of steel with abrasive belt grinding has reached 700mm3/mm·s, which even exceeds that of turning or milling. The grinding ratio of the abrasive belt greatly exceeds that of the grinding wheel, as high as 300:1, or even 400:1, while the grinding wheel is only 30:1.
The power utilization rate of belt grinders has reached 80% in the early stages of the development of belt grinding, which is ahead of other machine tools, but now it is as high as 96%. In contrast, only 52% of wheel grinders, 57% of milling machines, and 65% of lathes, so belt grinding is still a good energy-saving processing technology.
3. Cold grinding of abrasive belt
The surface quality of the abrasive belt grinding workpiece is high. This is because belt grinding has multiple functions of grinding, grinding, and polishing. In addition, compared with grinding wheel grinding, belt grinding is called "cold grinding", that is, the grinding temperature is low, and the surface of the workpiece is not prone to burns.
4. Grinding vibration of abrasive belt
The belt grinding system has low vibration and good stability. Due to the lightweight of the belt itself, the balanced state of the grinding process structure system is easy to control. All rotating parts (such as contact wheels, driving wheels, tensioning wheels, etc.) wear very little, and there will be no unbalanced factors like grinding wheels.
In addition, the elastic grinding effect of the abrasive belt can greatly reduce or absorb vibration and impact generated during grinding. The grinding speed is stable, and the belt drive wheel will not grind the smaller the diameter and the slower like the grinding wheel.
5. The roughness of the abrasive belt
The surface quality of the abrasive belt grinding workpiece is high, which is mainly manifested in the small surface roughness value, good residual stress state, and no micro-cracks on the surface.
6. Grinding accuracy of abrasive belt
Abrasive belt grinding precision is high. Due to the improvement of the quality of belt production and the production level of belt grinders, belt grinding has already entered the ranks of precision and ultra-precision machining, and the highest precision can be less than 0.1mm.